SBP’s Functions are mainly governed by:
- SBP Act, 1956 (as amended up to 28-01-2022)
- Banking Companies Ordinance, 1962
- Foreign Exchange Regulations Act, 1947
- Payment System and Electronic Fund Transfer Act, 2007
Under the State Bank of Pakistan Order 1948, the Bank was charged with the duty to "regulate the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in Pakistan and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage".
The scope of the Bank’s operations was considerably widened in the State Bank of Pakistan Act 1956, which required the Bank to "regulate the monetary and credit system of Pakistan and to foster its growth in the best national interest with a view to securing monetary stability and fuller utilisation of the country’s productive resources".
Under financial sector reforms, the State Bank of Pakistan was granted autonomy in February 1994. On 21st January, 1997, this autonomy was further strengthened by issuing three Amendment Ordinances (which were approved by the Parliament in May, 1997) namely, State Bank of Pakistan Act, 1956, Banking Companies Ordinance, 1962 and Banks Nationalisation Act, 1974.
The changes in the State Bank Act gave full and exclusive authority to the State Bank to regulate the banking sector, to conduct an independent monetary policy and to set limit on government borrowings from the State Bank of Pakistan. The amendments in Banks Nationalisation Act abolished the Pakistan Banking Council (an institution established to look after the affairs of NCBs) and institutionalised the process of appointment of the Chief Executives and Boards of the nationalised commercial banks (NCBs) and development finance institutions (DFIs), with the Sate Bank having a role in their appointment and removal. The amendments also increased the autonomy and accountability of the Chief Executives and the Boards of Directors of banks and DFIs.