DURRANIS    

The Durrani Empire came out in AD1747, consisting of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Khorasan province of Iran and smaller section of Western India. It existed for almost a century, until the tussles with Persian and Sikhs, and a final deathblow from Britishers.

Ahmed Shah Abdali (AD 1722-1772) belonged to Saddozais of Abdali tribe of Afghans, emerged as the founder of Durani Empire.

The Abdalis after the defeat from Nadir Shah, got incorporated in his army, in June 1747 Nadir Shah got murdered by his nephew Adil Shah, Ahmad Khan was nominated the future king, he renamed himself as Ahmed Shah and conferred the title “Durr-i-Duran” (pearl of pearls) , after his coronation, the Abdali Pashtuns came to be known as Duranis.

In 1749, Sindh, Punjab & West of Indus river was surrendered by traumatized Mughals to Ahmed Shah Durrani.

The growing rift between Afghans & rising sikh power called for 6 & 9 Afghan expedition to India in 1762. After several battles, in 1769, Ahmed Shah resorted to anti sikh war for ninth and last time, and in 1772 he died of a malignant wound inflicted by war.

Later Durrani Rulers (AD 1772-1823)
Unfortunately, the later Durranis were no companion to their outstanding predecessor, the acute inability to maintain the empire resulted in the downfall of the Durrani Empire.

Timur Shah (AD 1772-1793), son of Ahmed Shah was not welcome to the throne, he died in 1793. His son, Zaman Shah became the next ruler (1793-1801). Due to the internal conflicts among themselves, destroyed the stability of the empire.

Sikhs evolved as a source of potential danger. Zaman committed the blunder of recruiting a wise and brave Sikh Chief, Ranji Singh, as Governor of Punjab. Due to some other unwise actions, Zaman Shah found himself dethroned on July 25th, 1801.

Mahmud Shah replaced Zaman Shah (brother), due to interrupted career from AD 1803-1809 and again AD 1809-1818, Shah Shuja, another half brother took the reign (AD 1803-1809). He entered into an agreement with the British, on June 7th, 1809 this aroused antipathy against him. Got dethroned and later in 1839 got reinstalled on throne by the British.

Sultan Ali Shah, obtained power in AD 1818-1819, his brother Ayub Shah, appeared as the last Durrani Emperor in 1819, maintained power till his death, in 1823.

The Afghan Sikh rivalry brought an end to Durrani Empire.

 

Rupee of Ahmed Shah
Obverse:
Hukm Shud Az Qadir Bechun Ba Ahmad Badshah, Sikkah Zan Barseem-wa-Zar Az Auj Mahi Ta Be Mah
Reverse: Manus Maimant San 7 Jalus Zarb Multan

 

Rupee of Taimur Shah
Obverse:
Charakh Mi Aard Tala-wa-Naqra Az Khursheed-wa-Mah, Ta Kund Bar Chehra Naqsh Sikkah Taimur Shah
Reverse: Zarb Dar-ul-saltanate Herat

 

Rupee of Amir Sher Ali, Barakzai
Obverse:
The kalima (in circle), Amir Sher Ali (in Centre)
Reverse: Zarb Dar-ul-Saltanate Kabul San 1295 A.H.

         
   
 

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